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Images: finding, using, and citing them: APA Citation Rules

Reproduction of a work of art from Wikipedia

Pollock, Jackson.  (1948).  No. 5, 1948.  [Painting].  Retrieved from

Reproduction of a work of art from a museum site

Gogh, Vincent van.  (1888).  Farmhouse in Provence.  [Painting].  Washington, DC:  National Gallery.

Film downloaded from a museum website

J. Paul Getty Museum. (n.d.) Henri Toulouse-Lautrec's Circus Drawings.  [Video file].  Retrieved from


  • The purpose of a citation is to allow the reader to find the original source material, and the citation should include all information needed for that purpose.
  • The APA does not require reference list entries for ephemeral works, such as performance art, because they no longer exist and therefore a reference cannot lead the reader back to the source. Videos of such performances should be included in the reference list, however.

Works of Visual Art

Elements of citation:

Artistlastname, A. A. (Year of composition). Title of Work. [Format]. Place work resides. 


Carvaggio, M. (1606). Death of the Virgin. [Painting]. Retrieved from

Jevbratt, L. (2005). Migration (a map of the Internet) [Digital visualization]. Retrieved from

Rodin, A. (1902). The thinker [Bronze and marble sculpture]. Paris, France: Musée Rodin.

Wyeth, A. (1948). Christina’s world [Painting]. New York, NY: Museum of Modern Art.

Wyeth, A. (1948). Christina’s world [Painting]. Retrieved from

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Film or Video Recordings (including online sources)

Elements of citation:

Traditional Film: Producerlastname, A. A. (Producer), & Directorlastname, A. (Director). (Year of publication). Title of video or movie [Motion picture]. Country of origin: Studio.

Online Film: Creatorlastname, A. A. (Date of publication). Title of video [Video file]. Retrieved from [URL]


Motoki, S. (Producer), & Kurosawa, A. (Director). (1954). Shichinin no samurai [Seven samurai; Motion picture]. Japan: Toho.

Hungrybear9562. (2010, January 8). Yosemitebear Mountain Giant Double Rainbow 1-8-10 [Video file]. Retrieved from

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Graphic Narratives

Elements of citation:

Writers last name, A. A. (Writer), & Artists last name, A. (Illus.). (Year of publication). Title of work. City of publication: Publisher.


Moore, A. (Writer), & Gibbons, D. (Illus.). (1986). Watchmen. New York: DC Comics Inc.

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Online Maps

Elements of Citation:

Organization name (Cartographer). (Year). Title of map [Type of map]. Retrieved from URL


Lewis County Geographic Information Services (Cartographer). (2002). Population density, 2000 U.S. Census [Demographic map]. Retrieved from

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